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Route "Kreva-shlyakh praz stagoddzi"


Route "Kreva-shlyakh praz stagoddzi"
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Some researchers believe that the very name Kreva came from the word
"crooks." However, it could also be formed on behalf of the Supreme Lithuanian
the pagan priest Kreva-Kreveite, and from the Lithuanian word ‘K.KIEUG’ that
denotes "quagmire, swamp." Given that in ancient times these lands
inhabited by the Baltic tribes, it is likely that the name of the settlement is Baltic
origin.
One of the German chronicles of the XIII century reports that Kreva
was the center of the Nalshan land. Nalshany (or Nalshchany) is
historical region that lay in the northwest of Belarus in the basin
the river Western Berezina. The inhabitants of Nalshan were Bulgarians and Slavs. Probably, to these, and possibly to earlier times, the Krevsk settlement also belongs.

2.1 Kreva settlement

In ancient times, earthen mounds were supplemented by wooden fortifications.
The stone castle in Kreve was not yet, and the mound, rather
all, served as the residence of the Nalshan prince, and during enemy raids hid all the surrounding population. To withstand a long siege, inside the settlement there was a deep well, the remains of which could be observed in the XIX century.
Ancient chronicles tell us about complex relationships
between Nalshan Prince Dawmont and the founder of the Grand Duchy
Lithuanian Mindaugas.
It is said that a church once stood on top of it. They lived at that time
here is a guy and a girl who loved each other very much. Everything would be fine, though
the girl's parents were against their marriage. It seems that lovers need to part.
But their feeling was so strong that they could not imagine their future
life alone. 1 then they decided to get married secretly, without parental
blessings. And they did. 1 at a time when the church on the mound was going
wedding, the bride's mother learned of the conspiracy. "Oh, that you failed!" -
a curse escaped the angry mother's lips. 1 at the same moment and the church and all,
who were there, fell into the ground. They also say that after that
incident near the mound began to beat the well. They say hega - tears: or something
the young weep that they went against the will of their parents and perished, whether mothers
regrets that by her stubbornness and anger she lost her own daughter.
With the events referred to in the legend, many attribute the fact that in May on the site blooms beautiful and rare in our area
flower - pinnate.

2.2 Kreva Church

In February 1387, Jagiello signed a charter on the founding of seven parish churches in the Vilnius diocese and endowing them with land. Among them is the Kreva Church of the Ashmiany Deanery.
 Demonstratively, the church was laid on the ruins of a pagan shrine, where, as Polish researchers wrote, local Krivichi and Balts came to pay their respects to Perun. Thus, in 1387, two years after the signing of the Kreva Union, the church of St. She is the Baptist. Indeed, it was one of the first Catholic churches in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Erected by order of Jagiello, Kreva church has long enjoyed the protection of kings, grand dukes and other feudal lords. The church, not being a purely defensive structure, was repeatedly destroyed. Moreover, it was repeatedly completely destroyed and rebuilt anew. Thus, in the documents of 1636 the church is listed under the name of St. Anne. The change of the name of the church could be preceded only by its complete destruction. The new temple was of wood, but had a tin roof. The building was crowned by a dome with a cross. Inside the church there were three altars. The new brick church, erected in Kreve in 1850 on the site of the old one, was closed in 1866 and later converted into the church of St. Trinity.Thus, in Kreve in the second half of the XIX century there were four churches, but no church. However, there remained people devoted to their faith. Parishioners themselves raise funds for construction. In 1936 a new church building was erected on the same place where it had stood for many hundreds of years. The church was consecrated in 1937. in the name of the Virgin Mary. It was a very interesting architecturally constructed building. Art Nouveau with its expressiveness of expressive lines and planes has already allegedly departed, and super-rational constructivism has become widespread. However, the free formation of architectural volumes, the rich and varied plasticity of the Krevsk Church indicate that it is still Art Nouveau. The church in Kreva was closed and in 1961 converted into a hospital. And in 1995, on the long-suffering hill in Kreva, a new, this time beautiful brick church of the Transfiguration of the Lord appeared. However, they often add the Divine Mother of God. Indeed, in the church is a beautiful icon of the Virgin, which is revered by locals. And not only Catholics but also Orthodox. You can often hear the question: "Where are you going?" - The answer: "To Matachka." And it is clear that the man is going to church.

2.3 Orthodox church of St. Alexander Nevsky

Kreva Church of St. Alexander Nevsky was erected in 1854 according to a standard design approved by the Holy Synod and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Tsarist Russia. It has its own external features and its own distinctive history.
It is a monument of architecture of late classicism and retrospective Russian style. Solved in a compact rectangular plan with a volume under a 2-sloped roof, which is crowned above the altar with an onion-shaped dome on an 8-sided drum. A two-tiered (eight by four) tent belfry with a poppy is attached to the main facade. The architectural expressiveness of the building is achieved by a contrasting combination of rubble masonry (element of external archaization) and plastered whitewashed decor elements: rusted corner blades, platbands, arched window openings, cornice and frieze.
The prayer hall is covered with a wooden cylindrical vault, the apse is highlighted by a wooden iconostasis. At the end of the 19th century, the parish of St. Alexander Nevsky Church had more than 268 courtyards with 1,071 parishioners and 1,030 parishioners. The church owned 76 tithes of land. In 1889 a parish school was opened under her. At that time the priest here was Plavsky Dementiy Konstantinovich. He is the author of the historical and ethnographic essay "Kreva Town", which was published in 1871. The First World War brought great losses and destruction to Krevo. All wooden buildings burned down, and only the walls of the castle and the church of St. Alexander Nevsky.
When the war ended, the fate of the church was in the hands of the Soviet authorities. The church bell was banned, and various Saturdays and Sundays were practiced on holidays. Despite the ban, the Holiday-
 In the autumn of 1965, the villages of Velikaya Mysa, Bazary, Laptikha, Michnichy and Sialets moved from the Sutka parish to the wing of the St. Alexander Nevsky Church.

2.4 Jurava Gora

Among the picturesque Krevsk hills the Jurau mountain stands out with its grandeur and beauty. She is right next to the castle and according to the number of legends about her can compete with his mysterious neighbor. Researchers believe that the mountain is named after the Christian St. George. Indeed, the ancients remember that once on the spring holiday of St. George, local youth gathered here for a party. But, at the same time, the folk imagination gave life to other explanations of the name of the hill. Some will tell you about a guy Yurka, who was ordered to pull a mountain above the castle with a hat for some wrongdoing. And how surprised everyone was when this work was done overnight. You can hear about other Yuri from other people. So, as if dreaming that gold was buried on the mountain near the castle. Waking up, Yuri rushed in search of treasure. Climbed the mountain and began to dig feverishly there. It dug until it was swallowed by the sand whirlpool that had formed at the bottom of the pit.

2.5 Kreva Castle

Gediminas planned to build a chain of powerful castles in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in order to strengthen protection against the Crusaders. Having given Kreva to his son Algerd in 1338, he inherited the care of building the castle.
Kreva Castle was built in a valley among high hills, at the confluence of the river Krevlyanka and the stream Shlyakhtyanka. Well
the character of the masonry researchers determined that the construction was supervised by Western European masters.
In terms of the castle lies an irregular trapezoid. The length is the largest
walls - 108 meters. The height of the walls was more than 10 meters, the thickness -
almost 3 meters. Two towers were located diagonally. The largest - Knyaskaya -
was located in the northwest corner of the castle and protruded beyond the perimeter walls.
Such an arrangement promoted better protection by allowing during an assault
keep under fire the north and west walls.
The prince's tower had at least three floors and a dungeon - a prison. Rooms
the princes were on the second floor. The windows here were wider and
higher, and the walls were painted with frescoes. A feature of Kreva Castle
is that here for the first time in the history of Belarusian architecture housing
housed in a stone building. The second tower was smaller. Most likely, it was added later.
The walls of the castle are built of stone. Outside they are lined with brick. Entrance
the castle was on the north side. Settled in the castle yard
residential and farm buildings. In the western part was a pond with water.
In 1382, in the dungeon of the castle, by order of Jagiello, Grand Duke Keystut was strangled. The most important event that glorified Kreva throughout Europe was the signing of the Kreva Union, a dynastic union between the Grand Duchy.
Lithuanian and the Kingdom of Poland. On August 14, 1385, the roads led to
The blood of many Polish and Lithuanian nobles to conclude a treaty. According to her,
Grand Duke Jagiello of Lithuania married a fourteen-year-old Polish woman
Queen Jadwiga and became King of Poland.
In 1433 the castle was taken over by the rebellious prince Svidrigail. In the beginning
In the 16th century it was stormed several times by Crimean Tatars. And in August
In 1519 the castle was stormed by Moscow troops.
However, war and time did their thing. The castle collapsed. The First World War completed the destruction of the castle. A German observation post was located here, and Russian artillery fire often went in that direction. As a result, the Prince's Tower was almost completely destroyed and the walls smashed.
No matter what, the castle has always attracted the attention of researchers,
tourists, artists and poets. Pilgrimages to Krevo continue. 1 everyone who has touched its history, in his soul hopes that better times will come, the castle will be restored, and Kreva will return to its former greatness and glory. Since 2017, the castle is being preserved.

2.6 German dugouts from the First World War

Ironically, the latest advances in science and technology are used primarily for military purposes.
Here are the times in the First World War, the last conquests of human thought were fully exploited by the military, both German and Russian.
Powerful Germans have survived on the Krevsk hills to this day
fortifications - dugouts. Some of them, especially the ones on 2 and 3
lines of defense, have come down to us in good condition.
So that the dugouts could talk, they would probably talk about such a phenomenon on
war as the fraternization of Russian and German soldiers; the Women's Death Battalion under the command of Maria Bachkarova, which took its first and last battle near Krevo; about German gas attacks and the heroism of Russian pilots.

2.7 People's Museum of History and Local Lore of the State Educational Institution “Educational and Pedagogical
      Krevsky nursery-garden-secondary school complex ”
                             
     In 2018, the 50th anniversary of the opening of the People's Historical and Local History Museum of the State Educational Institution "Educational and Pedagogical Complex Krevsky Nursery-Garden-Secondary School". Like every exhibit, the museum has its own history, which dates back to 1968. The museum celebrated its 50th anniversary in an updated form. The exposition dedicated to the events of the First World War on the Kreva land has been completely changed, the corner of reconstruction of the room of wealthy residents of the beginning of the XX century has been re-equipped and redesigned, the materials of many sections have been updated, the museum has been replenished with new interesting exhibits.
Each museum stands out from the rest. A distinctive feature of our museum is the interior, which allows each visitor to find themselves in the unusual world of the Middle Ages, to feel the breath of that time. To date, the museum has 697 museum items of the main fund and 247 - research and support. Among the most valuable are a furniture set with carvings of the late 19th century, a plan of the town of Kreva for 1869, hand-woven towels of the early 20th century, church documentation of the pre-war period, collections of numismatics, pottery, and printed publications.

The exposition of the museum consists of the following sections:
1. "At the very origins" (The first information about Kreva);
2. "Witness of glory and tragedy" (History of Kreva Castle);
3. "Secrets of Kreva Castle" (Kreva in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania);
4. "Here the peoples came together" (National and religious composition of the population of Kreva at different times);
6. "Weekdays of the hair town" (Kreva as part of the Russian Empire);
7. "Between two fires" (Kreva during the First World War
8. "After the Peace of Riga" (Life of the town in the interwar period;)
9. "Time of great anxieties" (Kreva during the Second World War);
10. "Between past and future" (Post-war period and our days);
11. "Their ways passed through Kreva" (Famous countrymen, researchers of Kreva's past);
12. “School. Pages of History ”;
13. Ethnographic section.
In 2007, the museum received the status of folk. In 2011, the museum was entrusted to hold the first meeting of folk museums of the Grodno region. In 2016, the museum entered the top 10 unusual museums of Belarus in the project "Museums of Belarus with Belkart". In 2017, the museum won the district competition for the best museum of the educational institution of the Smarhoń district.

The tourist routes offered in the guide include the most important and interesting objects, acquaintance with which will allow tourists to receive a holistic picture of history of our settlement, will help visitors of a small town for a while to appear among these and other travelers who for some reason left here. your footprint. Our guides will help to look at Krevo through the eyes of those people, recreating what is no longer there. We will try to make the current guests of Kreva enjoy the trip to feel their relevance to the historical process.

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11.05.2021
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